Head Line: How Governor’s rule and President’s rule set J&K apart from other states
1) Mains Paper II: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
Why in news:
- When Jammu & Kashmir comes under President’s rule later this month, it will be for the first since October 9, 1996, when the Farooq Abdullah-led National Conference took over at the end of six years of direct central rule.
- The state has been under central rule eight times, and moved from Governor’s rule to President’s rule (after six months) on two of those occasions.
- This will be the third time.
- Until March 30, 1965, the state did not have a Governor or Chief Minister; it had a Sadre Riyasat (President of the State) and a Prime Minister.
- In 1953, months before J&K’s Constituent Assembly ratified the state’s accession to the Indian Union, the then J&K Prime Minister Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah was removed and arrested.
- In another blow to the state’s autonomy, New Delhi renamed the positions of Sadre Riyasat to Governor and Prime Minister to Chief Minister while Abdullah was in jail and his party was literally running a campaign for self-determination for J&K under the Plebiscite Front banner.
- Governor’s rule was imposed for the first time on March 26, 1977, when the Congress withdrew support to Abdullah, then Chief Minister.
- The Congress wanted to move a no-confidence motion but Abdullah recommended dissolution of the Assembly and fresh elections; then Governor L K Jha put the state under Governor’s rule. This lasted for 105 days until Abdullah was reelected.
- The first spell of President’s rule was in 1986.
- The longest spell of central rule, from 1990, came after a separatist movement and breakdown of the state machinery led to the resignation of CM Farooq Abdullah.
- New Delhi sent Jagmohan as Governor again, but his iron-fist policies failed to quell the movement, and he was replaced. President’s rule was repeatedly extended until October 1996.
- Cajoled by New Delhi with promises of restoration of autonomy to J&K, NC agreed to contest polls and Farooq Abdullah returned as Chief Minister.
Difference between Governor’s rule and President’s rule:
- In Governor’s rule, lawmaking power, financial power, budgetary sanction, all these powers are with the Governor.
- Once President’s rule is imposed, lawmaking power is transferred to Parliament, the Budget is also passed by Parliament.
- If they pass the budget before December 19, it is well within the powers of the Governor.
- After that, the power would be shifted to Parliament.
- When President’s rule is promulgated… the Governor has to seek clearance for every important decision from the Centre.
- When the Governor suspended the Assembly or later dissolved it.., he derived powers from the J&K Constitution.
- Unlike the Governor, who is the Centre’s nominee, Sadre Riyasat was a constitutional position elected by the J&K legislature and drew his powers from J&K’s own Constitution, signed into law in 1957 by then Sadre Riyasat Dr Karan Singh.
- Even after the post was abolished, the centrally nominated Governor continued to enjoy powers that his/her counterparts elsewhere did not. Governor’s rule is one of them.
- In other states, the Centre invokes Article 356 to impose President’s rule; in J&K, under Section 92 of the J&K Constitution, the Governor can rule for six months with a set of powers, the only requirement being the President’s consent.
Head Line: Niti Aayog meet: Economists call for rate cut, steps to boost liquidity
2) Mains Paper III: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.
Why in news:
- The Niti Aayog’s ‘Economists Huddle’, an internal meeting was held on Thursday in New Delhi.
- Economists call for rate cut, steps to boost liquidity in market.
Outcomes from meeting:
- Inflation averaged 4.3 per cent in the first half of FY19, below the RBI’s range of 4.7 per cent-5.1 per cent from its April monetary policy statement.
- At a 17-month trough of 2.33 per cent in November, inflation is underneath the 3.9 per cent lower end of the range for the second half.
- The RBI’s target is to keep inflation at 4 per cent over the medium term.
- The latest quarterly GDP figures show a slowing economy, dampened consumption growth and hence no excess demcand pressures.
- Economists also expressed concern over lower prices realised by farmers for their produce than the minimum support prices, which are at least 50 per cent more than the production cost under new policy.
3) Mains Paper III: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.